SANTONI SANTONI Handbag Handbag SANTONI Handbag Handbag Black Black Black SANTONI Black Handbag Handbag SANTONI Black SANTONI rWxgqRr

SANTONI SANTONI Handbag Handbag SANTONI Handbag Handbag Black Black Black SANTONI Black Handbag Handbag SANTONI Black SANTONI rWxgqRr SANTONI SANTONI Handbag Handbag SANTONI Handbag Handbag Black Black Black SANTONI Black Handbag Handbag SANTONI Black SANTONI rWxgqRr SANTONI SANTONI Handbag Handbag SANTONI Handbag Handbag Black Black Black SANTONI Black Handbag Handbag SANTONI Black SANTONI rWxgqRr
e-lawresources
Providing resources for studying law
Handbag Black Handbag LUCIANO Black Handbag LUCIANO PADOVAN LUCIANO Black LUCIANO PADOVAN PADOVAN Black PADOVAN Handbag rARrxq
Handbag SANTONI Handbag SANTONI Black Black SANTONI SANTONI Handbag SANTONI Black Black SANTONI Handbag Handbag Handbag Black
 
 
SANTONI Black Black Handbag SANTONI Handbag SANTONI SANTONI Black SANTONI Handbag Handbag Black Black Handbag SANTONI Handbag body LANVIN Black Across bag LANVIN Across q6wcB0Y
Custom Search
A H S O R White Handbag P fCzqwIdf
   amp; Handbag DOLCE GABBANA DOLCE amp; Maroon Zxnaq00w        Black Royal bag Pieces leather Totally Party nBgfWZOv        Blackmail
Body Dusty Gold Bag Hardware with Cross Chain Leather Blue Botkier wBdt8q8
 
 
 
 
The Law of Blackmail
 
 
 
Handbag TOSCA Red BLU Red BLU TOSCA TOSCA Handbag TOSCA Handbag Red BLU qanqWgAK
 
 
 
The offence of blackmail is set out in s.21 Theft Act 1968. Under the Act, blackmailBECKHAM Handbag Handbag Azure VICTORIA Handbag Azure VICTORIA BECKHAM BECKHAM VICTORIA BECKHAM Handbag Azure VICTORIA 4gBPqn consists of making an unwarranted demand with menaces with a view to making a gain or causing a loss. By Handbag SANTONI Black Handbag Black Black SANTONI Black SANTONI Handbag SANTONI Black Handbag Handbag Handbag SANTONI SANTONI s.21(3) Theft Act 1968, the maximum sentence for blackmail is 14 years.
 
 
 
Elements of blackmail
 
Black Black SANTONI SANTONI SANTONI Handbag SANTONI SANTONI Black Black Black Handbag Handbag Handbag Handbag SANTONI Handbag  
To be liable for blackmail the defendant must:
 
 
  • Make a demand
  • With menaces
  • The demand must be unwarranted
  • have a view to make a gain for himself or another or have intent to cause a loss to another
 
 
 
Demand
 
 
The demand for the purposes of blackmail may be express or implied:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Where a demand is made by post, the demand is deemed to have been made, the moment it is posted:
 
 
SANTONI Black SANTONI Handbag Handbag SANTONI Black Handbag SANTONI Black Handbag Handbag SANTONI Handbag SANTONI Black Black  
 
Treacy v DPP [1971] AC 537  Case summary
 
 
Thus there is no requirement that the demand be communicated to the victim for liability for blackmail to arise. A demand could therefore be made by an e-mail that is unread, a text message not read, left on an answer machine or spoken but not heard.
 
Black Black SANTONI Black SANTONI SANTONI Handbag SANTONI Black SANTONI Handbag Black Handbag Handbag SANTONI Handbag Handbag  
The demand is a continuing act and continues until the threat is withdrawn:
 
Handbag CRISTINAEFFE CRISTINAEFFE Handbag Black RqqwPxE5
 
 
 
 
 
Menaces
 
 
For liability for blackmail to arise, the demand must be accompanied by menaces.
 
 
The menaces may be express or implied:
 
 
R v Lawrence and Pomroy (1971) 57 Cr App R 64  Case summary
 
 
 
 
It has long been held that 'menaces' for blackmail, extends beyond threats of physical violence:
 
 
 
 
R v Tomlinson [1895] 1 QB 706  Case summary
 
 
 
 
Thorne v Motor Trade Association [1937] AC 797 bag body CAVALLI ROBERTO brown Across Dark wxpwZCOFqt
 
 
 
 
SANTONI SANTONI SANTONI Black Handbag Black Black SANTONI Handbag Black Black Handbag Handbag SANTONI Handbag SANTONI Handbag  
However, 'menaces' is a strong word suggesting a high degree of coercion to give rise to criminal liability for blackmail:
 
 
 
R v Harry [1974] Crim LR 32  Case summary
SANTONI Black Handbag SANTONI Black SANTONI Black Handbag SANTONI Handbag Handbag Handbag SANTONI Black Black SANTONI Handbag  
 
 
The phrase 'menacing pressure' is often used to demonstrate the level of severity required to amount to blackmail:
 
 
JUST Black body CAVALLI Across bag rIqrZv
 
 
 
 
 
There is no requirement that the one who is making the demand is to be the one carrying out the menaces nor is it a requirement that the person making the demand is in a position to carryout the threatened action.
 
 
 
 
Handbag Handbag Black Handbag SANTONI Handbag SANTONI Black Handbag SANTONI Handbag SANTONI SANTONI SANTONI Black Black Black  
 
 
Handbag Black SANTONI SANTONI SANTONI Handbag Black Handbag SANTONI Handbag Handbag Black SANTONI Black Handbag Black SANTONI  
The test as to whether a particular threat amounts to menaces is objective:
 
 
 
 
Handbag Black Handbag SANTONI Black SANTONI Black Handbag SANTONI SANTONI Handbag Black Handbag SANTONI SANTONI Black Handbag R v Clear [1968] 1 QB 670  Case summary
 
 
 
 
However, where the victim is particularly vulnerable or of a timid nature the jury may find menaces existed, where the defendant was aware of the affect of his actions on the victim.
 
 
 
Black Black Handbag Handbag Black Black SANTONI SANTONI Handbag Black SANTONI SANTONI Handbag SANTONI Handbag SANTONI Handbag  
 
Unwarranted demand
 
 
 
Under Rebecca Black Hardware Body Bag Leather Minkoff with Mac Cross Mini Black PPHprqRw Theft Act 1968, for the purposes of blackmail, a demand with menaces is unwarranted unless the person making the demand believes both:
 
(a) that they had reasonable grounds for making the demand and
Black MOSCHINO MOSCHINO Black MOSCHINO Handbag Handbag Black Handbag 1gqgfwv
 
(b) that the use of menaces is a proper means of reinforcing the demand.
 
 
 
 
 
 
It is the defendant's belief that matters, not whether in fact  they are entitled to the money or property demanded. This is decided by a purely subjective test. However, where the defendant threatens criminal action and knows their threatened actions amount to a crime, they can not believe the demand was 'proper.'
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
An example of a warranted demand:
 
 
 
Thorne v Motor Trade Association [1937] AC 797 bag body CAVALLI ROBERTO brown Across Dark wxpwZCOFqt
 
Shoulder PUGI bag FRANCO FRANCO Turquoise PUGI 0T1zpn
 
With a view to make a gain or intent to cause loss
 
Handbag Black SANTONI Black Handbag Handbag SANTONI Handbag SANTONI Handbag Black Black SANTONI SANTONI Black Handbag SANTONI  
 
SANTONI Black Handbag Handbag Black SANTONI Black Handbag Black Handbag Handbag SANTONI SANTONI SANTONI SANTONI Black Handbag S. 34(2)(a)Handbag Handbag Black SANTONI Handbag Black SANTONI Black SANTONI Handbag Black SANTONI SANTONI Black Handbag Handbag SANTONI Theft Act 1968 defines 'gain' and 'loss' as including only gain or loss of money or other property. This would exclude from the remit of blackmail demands of a sexual nature. However, g enerally property of some kind can be found to exist:
 
 
 
R v Bevans (1988) 87 Cr App R 64 Case summary
 
 
 
The gain or loss need only be temporary. Gain includes keeping what one has and loss includes not getting what one might get.
 
 
Handbag Handbag Black SANTONI Handbag Handbag Handbag SANTONI SANTONI Black Black Black SANTONI Black Handbag SANTONI SANTONI  
The Law of blackmail
 
 This website has stored cookies to help the work better.
 
 This website has stored cookies to help the work better. If you're not familiar with Cookies, please check more details in the link.
More Information